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Методичні вказівки і контольние роботи з англійської мови для студентів-заочників 3 курсу історичного факультету Випуск 6





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Типнавчальний посібник

МІНІСТЕРСТВО АГЕНСТВО ДО ОСВІТИ

Федеральне державне освітній заклад

вищої професійної освіти

"ПІВДЕННИЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ"

Гогенко В.В., Пасько О.В.

Методичні вказівки І КОНТОЛЬНИЕ РОБОТИ

з англійської мови для студентів-заочників 3 курсу історичного факультету

випуск 6

Ростов - на - Дону

2008

Навчально-методичні вказівки розроблені викладачем кафедри англійської мови гуманітарних факультетів В.В. Гогенко, викладачем кафедри англійської мови гуманітарних факультетів О.В. Пасько.

Відповідальний редактор доц. С. Л. Баркова

Комп'ютерний набір і верстка преп. В.В. Гогенко, преп. О.В. Пасько

Друкується відповідно до рішення кафедри англійської мови гуманітарних факультетів ПФУ, протокол № 10 від 21 березня 2008р.

МЕТОДИЧНА ЗАПИСКА

Основною метою навчання студентів англійської мови в немовному вузі є практичне володіння цією мовою, що передбачає при заочному навчанні формування вміння самостійно читати літературу за фахом з метою вилучення інформації з іншомовних джерел, розвиток навичок усного мовлення (говоріння та аудіювання) в рамках визначеної Програмою тематики. Для контролю розуміння прочитаного, як спосіб передачі отриманої при читанні інформації, а також як засіб навчання використовується переклад.

Особливістю заочного навчання є те, що обсяг самостійної роботи студента з вироблення мовних навичок і умінь значно перевищує обсяг практичних аудиторних занять з викладачем, тому для того, щоб домогтися успіху, необхідні систематичні самостійні заняття.

Самостійна робота студента з вивчення іноземної мови включає в себе заучування лексичних одиниць, оволодіння правилами словотвору і граматики, читання текстів вголос відповідно до правил читання, побудова питань і відповідей до текстів, переклад на російську мову усний і письмовий.

Працюючи над навчальним матеріалом, що підлягають обов'язковому вивченню протягом семестру, студент повинен вести словник, виписуючи слова з транскрипцією і в словникової формі. Словник і зошит з виконаними вправами повинні бути представлені викладачеві.

У випуску 6 представлені варіанти контрольного завдання №6.

Перш ніж приступити до виконання контрольної роботи, слід вивчити і закріпити за допомогою вправ граматичний матеріал семестру. Контрольні роботи повинні виконуватися акуратно, чітким почерком. При виконанні контрольної роботи слід залишати в зошиті широкі поля для зауважень рецензента.

Матеріал контрольної роботи слід розташовувати в зошиті за таким зразком:

ліва сторінка

права сторінка

Поля Англійська текст

Російський текст Поля

Завдання повинні бути виконані повністю і в тій послідовності, в якій вони запропоновані: умови їх необхідно переписувати. Контрольна робота повинна бути виконана в окремому зошиті, на обкладинці якої слід вказати номер контрольного завдання, номер варіанта, факультет, відділення та прізвище студента. Викладачеві на перевірку повинен бути представлений тільки один варіант контрольного завдання; інші варіанти використовуються в якості додаткового матеріалу.

Якщо контрольна робота виконана без дотримання зазначених вимог або неповністю, вона повертається без перевірки.

КОНТРОЛЬНЕ ЗАВДАННЯ №6

Для того щоб правильно виконати контрольне завдання №6, необхідно засвоїти наступний граматичний матеріал:

1 Узгодження часів.

2 Непряма мова. Правила перекладу прямої мови в непряму. Дієслова, які замінять слова автора.

3 Словотвір. Суфікси і префікси іменників, прикметників, дієслів; негативні префікси.

4 Часи активного застави: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect.

5 Пасивний заставу.

6 Причини того часу: in, at, on, during, for, after, before.

7 Причини того місця та напрямку: on, at, in, among, between, across, through, up, above.

8 Артиклі.


Зразок виконання контрольного завдання №6

Ліва сторінка Права сторінка

№1 Розкрийте дужки і поставте дієслова в потрібний час (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

поля

1) It was very stuffy in the room, so I (to open) the window.

1) It was very stuffy in the room, so I opened the window.

В кімнаті було дуже душно, тому я відкрила вікно.

поля

№2 вжив такі пропозиції як підрядні додаткові, в ролі головних використовуючи пропозиції, дані в дужках. Змінюйте часи відповідно до правила узгодження часів. Перепишіть перероблені пропозиції і переведіть їх на російську мову:

поля

1) "I have never been abroad." (She said ...)

1) She said that she had never been abroad.

Вона сказала, що ніколи не була за кордоном.

поля

№3 Розкрийте дужки і виберіть потрібну пасивну форму дієслова, вкажіть час. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

поля

1) He (was fired / had been fired) because of being rude to his boss.

1) He was fired because of being rude to his boss . - Past Simple Passive

Його звільнили з-за грубого поводження з начальником.

поля

№4 Переведіть діалог і передайте його в непрямій мові, переробляючи кожне речення:

поля

Ann: Do you like my bike?

Ben: Yes, it's a fine bicycle.

Ann asked if Ben liked her bike.

Ben said that it was a fine bicycle.

Аня запитала Бена чи подобається йому її велосипед.

Бен відповів, що велосипед хороший.

поля

№5 Закінчите пропозиції, утворивши необхідну частину мови (частина мови вказана в дужках). Перепишіть і перекладіть пропозиції на російську мову:

поля

1) There is a .... that she will be studying abroad next year. (Possible) (іменник)

1) There is a possibility that she will be studying abroad next year .

Існує ймовірність того, що вона буде вчитися за кордоном в наступному році.

поля

№6 а) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід часу. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

поля

1) I'm meeting him (on / in) Saturday.

1) I'm meeting him on Saturday.

Я зустрічаюся з ним в суботу.

поля

b) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід місця та напрямку. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

поля

1) (At / In) the end of the lesson the teacher gave us the home task.

1) At the end of the lesson the teacher gave us the home task .

В кінці заняття вчитель задав нам домашнє завдання.

поля

№7 Виправте помилки у вживанні артиклів, вставте артиклі, де необхідно. Перепишіть виправлені пропозиції і переведіть їх на російську мову:

поля

1) The Moscow is the capital of Russia.

1) Moscow is the capital of Russia.

Москва - столиця Росії.

поля

варіант №1

№1 Розкрийте дужки і поставте дієслова в потрібний час (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 At seven o'clock I (to go) to the theatre.

2 What (to do) your brother? - He (to be) a historian.

3 By the time the firemen (to arrive), the house was burnt down.

4 I never (to see) snow. I hope to see it when winter (to come).

5 How long you (to read) this book? - For half an hour.

6 By the end of the summer we (to complete) the greater part of our task.

7 He got there sooner than we (to expect).

8 When he got home his father already (to repair) TV for 15 minutes.

№2 вжив такі пропозиції як підрядні додаткові, в ролі головних використовуючи пропозиції, дані в дужках. Змінюйте часи відповідно до правила узгодження часів. Перепишіть перероблені пропозиції:

1 "I am going to Paris soon". (She said ...)

2 "It's time to start revising for the exam". (The teacher told the students ...)

3 "Do not leave the door unlocked". (She warned them ...)

4 "You will fall and break your leg". (I was afraid ...)

5 My friend has never been to Washington. (I knew ...)

№3 Розкрийте дужки і виберіть потрібну пасивну форму дієслова, вкажіть час. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 There is not any food left. All of it (was eaten / has been eaten).

2 I could not wear my suit last Saturday. It (was cleaned / was being cleaned).

3 Wine (is produced / has been produced) in many parts of France.

4 I can not find my car anywhere. I think it (was stolen / has been stolen).

5 We did not go to the party on Sunday because we (were not invited / had not been invited).

6 How many languages (are spoken / are being spoken) in Switzerland?

7 "What's going on in the hall?" - "The windows (are washed / are being washed)."

8 Our house (was broken into / had been broken into) last week.

№4 Переведіть діалог і передайте його в непрямій мові, переробляючи кожне речення:

After the holidays.

Peter: It's nice to see you, Helen. How are you?

Helen: Good morning, Peter. Hope you are well. Have not seen you for ages. Where have you been all this time?

Peter: I've just arrived from Brighton. I spent my holidays at the seaside. Have you ever been there?

Helen: Yes, I was there last year. It's a nice place, is not it? I hope you enjoyed yourself greatly.

Peter: Oh, yes. I had a very nice time. The weather was fine. I swam much, lay in the sun and made a lot of friends.

Helen: Did you go to Brighton alone?

Peter: No, together with my cousin Dick. You remember him, do not you?

Helen: Sure. Has he finished school yet?

Peter: Yes, he is a student at Oxford University. And how are you getting on? I have not heard from you lately.

Helen: I'm quite all right, thank you. Come and see me some day, will you?

№5 Закінчите пропозиції, утворивши необхідну частину мови (частина мови вказана в дужках). Перепишіть і перекладіть пропозиції на російську мову:

1 You should consider your options (to care) before making decision. (прислівник)

2 Many youth (to organize) offer summer enrichment programs. (Іменник)

3 Everyone should have basic (to know) of first aid procedures. (Іменник)

4 The (to entertain) committee is organizing a spring carnival. (Прикметник)

5 Scientists have (recent) discovered another planet in our galaxy. (прислівник)

6 Even though he was very (wealth), he was not a happy man. (Прикметник)

7 We need to find a (to solve) to our economic problems. (Іменник)

8 It is (extreme) likely that we will see man land on Mars in the near future . (прислівник)

№6 а) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід часу. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 The conference lasted (for / during) a week.

2 We start our work (at / on) 8 am and finish (at / on) 5 pm

3 Could we meet (in / on) Monday?

4 (At / On) weekends we usually go to the country.

5 The accident happened (in / at) night.

b) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід місця та напрямку. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 They live (above / up) us.

2 Is there any wine (in / at) the bottle?

3 We passed (across / through) the bridge.

4 Exercise №5 is (on / at) the bottom of the page.

5 They went (for / to) the station by bus.

№7 Виправте помилки у вживанні артиклів, вставте артиклі, де необхідно. Перепишіть виправлені пропозиції і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 My friend is the guide. He is the good interpreter.

2 They are tourists from the Asia.

3 I'm going to have a nap for the hour or two.

4 Once upon time there lived king.

5 Custom is a second nature.

6 A good advice is what you need.

7 He catches the fish for a pleasure.

8 The Latin is the basis of many languages.

9 The kangaroo is associated with the Australia.

10 Who invented a telescope?

№8 Прочитайте текст в завданні 10 і знайдіть в ньому такі слова і вирази:

переслідує якусь особливу мету; почуття страху у людей; збити з мети;

пригнічуючи будь-яке інакомислення; мовчазною згодою; тиску законів;

породжує ідеологію; в санкціонованих громадських організаціях;

зовнішніми ворогами; громадську думку регулювали проти;

сприяти досягненню мети

№9 Зіставте наступні слова з їх значеннями:

a) obstacles

1) the ability, power or right to control and command

b) movement

2) something which stands in the way and prevents action or success

c) authority

3) a set of ideas, especially one on which a political or economic system is based

d) achievement

4) a group of people who make united efforts for a particular purpose

e) diversity

5) use of bodily force to hurt or harm

f) violence

6) one's aim or purpose; a position or object one wishes to reach or obtain

g) permit

7) the successful finishing or gaining of something

h) will

8) the condition of being different or having differences, variety

i) ideology

9) allow \ make it possible

j) goal

10) the power in the mind to choose one's actions

№10 Переведіть 1, 2, 3 абзаци тексту на російську мову.

Totalitarianism

1) Totalitarianism is a form of government that theoretically permits no individual freedom and that seeks to subordinate all aspects of the individual's life to the authority of the government. Totalitarianism is often distinguished from dictatorship, despotism, or tyranny by its supplanting of all political institutions with new ones and its sweeping away of all legal, social, and political traditions. The totalitarian state pursues some special goal, such as industrialization or conquest, to the exclusion of all others.

2) All resources are directed toward its attainment regardless of the cost. Whatever might further the goal is supported; whatever might foil the goal is rejected. This obsession spawns an ideology that explains everything in terms of the goal, rationalizing all obstacles that may arise and all forces that may contend with the state. The resulting popular support permits the state the widest latitude of action of any form of government. Any dissent is branded evil, and internal political differences are not permitted. Because pursuit of the goal is the only ideological foundation for the totalitarian state, achievement of the goal can never be acknowledged.

3) Under totalitarian rule, traditional social institutions and organizations are discouraged and suppressed; thus the social fabric is weakened and people become more amenable to absorption into a single, unified movement. Participation in approved public organizations is at first encouraged and then required. Old religious and social ties are supplanted by artificial ties to the state and its ideology. As pluralism and individualism diminish, most of the people embrace the totalitarian state's ideology. The infinite diversity among individuals blurs, replaced by a mass conformity to the belief and behavior sanctioned by the state.

4) Large-scale, organized violence becomes permissible and sometimes necessary under totalitarian rule, justified by the overriding commitment to the state ideology and pursuit of the state's goal. In Nazi Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, whole classes of people, such as the Jews and the kulaks (wealthy peasant farmers), respectively, were singled out for persecution and extinction. In each case the persecuted were linked with some external enemy and blamed for the state's troubles, and thereby public opinion was aroused against them and their fate at the hands of the military and the police was condoned.

5) Police operations within a totalitarian state often appear similar to those within a police state, but one important difference distinguishes them. In a police state the police operate according to known, consistent procedures. In a totalitarian state the police operate without the constraints of laws and regulations. The actions are unpredictable and directed by the whim of their rulers. Under Hitler and Stalin uncertainty was interwoven into the affairs of the state.

6) The German constitution of the Weimar Republic was never abrogated under Hitler, but an enabling act passed by the Republic in тисячу дев'ятсот тридцять три permitted him to amend the constitution at will, in effect nullifying it. The role of lawmaker became vested in one man. Similarly, Stalin provided a constitution for the Soviet Union in +1936 but never permitted it to become the framework of Soviet law. Instead, he was the final arbiter in the interpretation of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism and changed his interpretations at will. Neither Hitler nor Stalin permitted change to become predictable , thus increasing the sense of terror among the people and repressing any dissent .

№11 Прочитайте текст ще раз і письмово дайте відповідь на запитання до нього:

1) What does the term "totalitarianism" imply?

2) What is the main feature that distinguishes totalitarianism from dictatorship, despotism and tyranny?

3) How does the state's ideology influence the people under totalitarian rule?

4) What is the nature of public opinion in totalitarian states?

№12 Визначте, чи є такі твердження вірними (true) або невірними (false). Виправте невірні твердження і перепишіть їх.

1 Totalitarianism is a political system in which only one political party and no rival loyalties are permitted.

2 Under totalitarian rule all resources are directed toward the attainment of some special goal which is in fact never achieved.

3 The activity of social institutions and organizations are encouraged and stimulated by the totalitarian government.

4 Acquiescence is the only means of surviving under totalitarian rule.

5 The totalitarian regime spawns lots of internal and external enemies responsible for the state's troubles and condemned by public opinion.

6 Under totalitarianism old religious and social ties are hardly condoned.

7 Popular support of the totalitarian state's ideology is always unanimous and sincere.

8 Organized violence is necessary in totalitarian states as it is justified by the pursuit of the state's goal and therefore is considered legal.

варіант №2

№1 Розкрийте дужки і поставте дієслова в потрібний час (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 What did you do when you (to find) out you (to lose) your wallet?

2 Look! I believe it is Mrs. Stern who (to cross) the street.

3 I have sworn that I (not to go) back till I (see) all the marvels of this oriental city.

4 When I come tomorrow, they (to sit) here for 20 minutes.

5 He admitted that he (to live) in London at various times.

6 Who (to break) the window?

7 He (not to listen) to the music at the moment. He (to watch) TV.

8 "Hello! I (to try) to telephone you all week. Where you (to be)? "

№2 вжив такі пропозиції як підрядні додаткові, в ролі головних використовуючи пропозиції, дані в дужках. Змінюйте часи відповідно до правила узгодження часів. Перепишіть перероблені пропозиції:

1 "I can not help you because I have too much work to do". (She said ...)

2 "Would you like to come to my party?" (He invited her ...)

3 "Do not be stupid."(She told me ...)

4 The children were playing in the yard. (She thought ...)

5 Her friend will come to see her. (She hoped ...)

№3 Розкрийте дужки і виберіть потрібну пасивну форму дієслова, вкажіть час. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 By the time I arrived at the concert hall, there were no tickets left. They (were sold / had been sold).

2 The tower of London (was built / is built) at the beginning of the eleventh century.

3 We could not use the photocopier yesterday morning. It (was repaired / was being repaired).

4 A compass (is used / is being used) for showing direction.

5 Have you heard? The old police station (was repainted / has been repainted).

6 Millions of cars (are exported / are being exported) from Japan every month.

7 I (was being frighten / was frighten) when I drove through Paris last Month.

8 "What's happened?" - "The window (has been broken / was broken)."

№4 Переведіть діалог і передайте його в непрямій мові, переробляючи кожне речення:

Professor: What is history?

Student: It's a science dealing with the development of human society .

Professor: When did historical thought appear?

Student: I think it goes as far back as the 4 th -3 rd millennium BC

Professor: You are quite right. Could you give me the names of the most famous ancient historians?

Student: Certainly. They are: Herodotus, who was the "father of History", Xenophon and Polybius. They all come from Ancient Greece. As to the historians of Ancient Rome, Titus, Tacitus and Plutarch are most well-known.

Professor: That's right. What can be said about the first historical writings?

Student: As far as I know they were stone inscriptions , reviews and chronicles showing various events in Egypt, Babylon, Assyria and Persia.

Professor: Exactly so. Do you know any Russian historians of the 18 th or 19 th centuries?

Student: If I'm not mistaken, Russian historiography is represented by Karamzin, Granovsky, Solovyev, Kluchevsky and others.

Professor: So much for today. See you tomorrow.

№5 Закінчите пропозиції, утворивши необхідну частину мови (частина мови вказана в дужках). Перепишіть і перекладіть пропозиції на російську мову:

1 Our (to correspond) over the years has helped us build a good relationship . (Іменник)

2 Travelling by train is far more (comfort) than traveling by bus. (Прикметник)

3 It is sad that so many older people are afraid and (lone) in today's society. (Прикметник)

4 Some unusual stamps are (special) rare and expensive. (прислівник)

5 There is a great (to vary) of flowers growing in our garden. (Іменник)

6 The clerk's attitude was not only (to help) but also very rude. (Прикметник)

7 Her high-heeled shoes were quite (to suit) for the rocky road. (Прикметник)

8 The firefighters moved into (to act) as soon as the alarm sounded. (Іменник)

№6 а) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід часу. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 (During / for) the meeting the chief engineer spoke several times.

2 Mr. Brown is out. He'll be back (in / after) an hour.

3 The competition should take place (in / on) Wednesday morning.

4 I can not sleep (in / at) night. I have insomnia.

5 He was sitting (among / between) Nina and Jane.

b) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід місця та напрямку. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 There is nothing (on / in) the bottle.

2 The post office is (at / in) the end of the street.

3 The village is (among / between) the trees.

4 Hang the picture (on / at) the hook.

5 She looked (across / through) the window.

№7 Виправте помилки у вживанні артиклів, вставте артиклі, де необхідно. Перепишіть виправлені пропозиції і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 The Russian language of a twentieth century differs from the Russian language of a twenty first century.

2 What's a weather like today?

3 His is the interpreter from the Dutch into the English.

4 A sun rises on the East.

5 Everything will be done in the flick of an eyelash.

6 The every Sunday I watch the programme "The Magic of the Word."

7 More snow, better for crops.

8 My house is a third to a right.

9 What languages ​​are spoken in the Argentina?

10 The last year they staged a new play.

№8 Прочитайте текст в завданні 10 і знайдіть в ньому такі слова і вирази:

придушення основних громадянських свобод; проводити далекосяжні соціальні реформи; нацистська Німеччина; військова диктатура; душити опозицію;

з'явитися стимулом; виступати в союзі з кимось; залякування; нагальна потреба виживання нації; збільшення повноважень виконавчої влади; виявитися неспроможним

№9 Зіставте наступні слова з їх значеннями:

a) maintain

1) family origins of a stated type

b) decline

2) of or based on a political system in which every citizen is subject to the power of the state, which exercises complete control over all areas of life

c) descent

3) to keep in existence

d) inherit

4) refusal to agree, especially with an opinion that is held by most people

e) capture

5) a ruler with complete power, usually gained unjustly and by force, who rules cruelly and unjustly

f) totalitarian

6) movement to a lower or worse position

g) dissent

7) to receive property, title, etc. left by someone who has died

h) survive

8) to take control of something by force from an enemy; win, gain

i) tyrant

9) believing or demanding that rules and laws must always be obeyed whether or not they are right

j) authoritarian

10) to continue to live or exist, especially after coming close to death

№10 Переведіть 1, 2, 6 абзаци тексту на російську мову.

Dictatorship

1) Dictatorship is a form of government in which one person or a small group possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limitations. The term dictatorship comes from the Latin title dictator , which in the Roman Republic designated a temporary magistrate who was granted extraordinary powers in order to deal with state crises . Modern dictators, however, resemble ancient tyrants rather than ancient dictators. Ancient philosophers 'descriptions of the tyrannies of Greece and Sicily go far toward characterizing modern dictatorships. Dictators usually resort to force or fraud to gain despotic political power, which they maintain through the use of intimidation, terror, and the suppression of basic civil liberties. They may also employ techniques of mass propaganda in order to sustain their public support.

2) With the decline and disappearance in the 19th and 20th centuries of monarchies based on hereditary descent, dictatorship became one of the two chief forms of government in use by nations throughout the world, the other being constitutional democracy. Rule by dictators has taken several different forms. In Latin America in the 19th century, various dictators arose after effective central authority had collapsed in the new nations recently freed from Spanish colonial rule. These self-proclaimed leaders usually led a private army and tried to establish control over a territory before marching upon a weak national government.

3) Later 20th century dictators in Latin America were different. They were national rather than provincial leaders and often were put in their position of power by nationalistic military officers, as was Juan Peron of Argentina. They usually allied themselves with a particular social class, and attempted either to maintain the interests of wealthy and privileged elites or to institute far-reaching left-wing social reforms.

4) In the new states of Africa and Asia after World War II, dictators quickly established themselves on the ruins of constitutional arrangements inherited from the Western colonial powers that had proved unworkable in the absence of a strong middle class and in the face of local traditions of autocratic rule. In some of such countries, elected presidents and prime ministers captured personal power by establishing one-party rule and suppressing the opposition, while in others the army seized power and established military dictatorships.

5) The communist and fascist dictatorships that arose in various technologically advanced countries in the first half of the 20th century were distinctively different from the authoritarian regimes of Latin America or the postcolonial dictatorships of Africa and Asia. Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler and the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin were the leading examples of such modern totalitarian dictatorships. The crucial elements of both were the identification of the state with a single mass party and of the party with its charismatic leader, the use of an official ideology to legitimize and maintain the regime, the use of terror and propaganda to suppress dissent and stifle opposition , and the use of modern science and technology to control the economy and individual behavior. Soviet-type communist dictatorships arose in central and eastern Europe, China, and other countries in the wake of World War II.

6) Many forces at work in the 20th century appear to lend impetus to the rise of monocratic forms of rule. In nearly all political systems, the powers of chief executives have increased in response to the demanding social, economic, and military crises of the age. The complex decisions required of governments in a technological era, the perfectionist impulses of the great bureaucratic structures that have developed in all industrialized societies, and the imperatives of national survival in a nuclear world continue to add to the process of executive aggrandizement. The question for many constitutional regimes is whether the limitation and balance of power that are at the heart of constitutional government can survive the growing enlargement of executive power.

№11 Прочитайте текст ще раз і письмово дайте відповідь на запитання до нього:

1) What is the origin of the term dictatorship?

2) What techniques did dictators use to maintain their political power ?

3) Which two main forms of government were typical in the world in
the 19th and 20th centuries?

4) What are the crucial elements that differentiate communist and fascist dictatorships from authoritarian regimes of Latin America and postcolonial dictatorships of Asia and Africa?

№12 Визначте, чи є такі твердження вірними (true) або невірними (false).Виправте невірні твердження і перепишіть їх.

1) In the course of maintaining their despotic political power dictators do not usually neglect using techniques of mass propaganda.

2) With the decline and disappearance of monarchies based on hereditary descent, dictatorship became the only chief form of government in use by nations throughout the world.

3) 20th century dictators in Latin America were less national than provincial leaders.

4) In the new states of Africa and Asia after World War II the conditions for establishing dictatorial rule were extremely unfavorable.

5) The common crucial elements of both communist and fascist dictatorships should not lead one to the conclusion that they are quite identical.

6) Under no circumstances could constitutional democracies have anything in common with dictatorship.

7) In nearly all political systems, the powers of chief executives decreased due to the demanding social, economic and military crises of the age.

8) Whether the main values ​​of constitutional ruling can survive the growing enlargement of executive power still remains unpredictable.

варіант №3

№1 Розкрийте дужки і поставте дієслова в потрібний час (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 "Can you come on Sunday evening?" - "Sorry, but I (to play) volleyball."

2 Do not phone between 7 and 8. Tomorrow we (to have) dinner at that time.

3 Where have you been? I (to look) for you for the last half hour.

4 She (to wait) for me when I arrived.

5 "Do you see Ann very often?" - "No, I (not to see) her for three months."

6 We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody (to break) into the office during the night. So we (to call) the police.

7 I will let you know as soon as I (to find out) where the hotel is.

8 Ted and Mary (to be married) for 20 years.

№2 вжив такі пропозиції як підрядні додаткові, в ролі головних використовуючи пропозиції, дані в дужках. Змінюйте часи відповідно до правила узгодження часів. Перепишіть перероблені пропозиції:

1 "Ann has bought the tickets". (I was told ...)

2 "It took me three hours to get here because the roads are flooded". (He told me ...)

3 "You should stop smoking". (The doctor advised my brother ...)

4 "Could you change the light bulb for me?" (She asked me ...)

5 Our sportsmen will win the game. (We were sure ...)

№3 Розкрийте дужки і виберіть потрібну пасивну форму дієслова, вкажіть час. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 "Can I take these documents?" - "I'm afraid not. They (are not typed / have not been typed) yet. "

2 The island (is surrounded / is being surrounded) by water.

3 The electric bulb (was invented / is invented) by Thomas Edison.

4 Even though construction costs are high, a new dormitory (will be built / will have been built) next year.

5 The group was too large, so it (was divided / has been divided) into two parts.

6 "Is the plane going to be late?" - "No, It (is expected / is being expected) to be on time."

7 I had to wait a little. When I came the students (were tested / were being tested).

8 Paper, the main writing material today, (was invented / will be invented) by Chinese.

№4 Переведіть діалог і передайте його в непрямій мові, переробляючи кожне речення:

Peter: Did your father take part in the Great Patriotic War ?

Jane: Yes, he did. He is a war veteran. Now he is a retired officer, a colonel.

Peter: I see. When did he go to the front?

Jane: He says he went there at the outbreak of the war when the fascists attacked our country and our people took up arms .

Peter: Was he an infantryman or an artilleryman?

Jane: Neither. He served in the armor troops as a tank man.

Peter: Well. What great battles did he fight?

Jane: As far as I know he took part in the Great battle on the Volga and in that of Berlin .

Peter: I am sure he has told you many interesting things about those battles .

Jane: Of course, he has. For instance, speaking of the battle on the Volga he says it was the turning point because it determined the outcome of the war.

Peter: And we could pass from defensive to offensive operations , and we finally encircled a large group of German armies . Field Marshal Paulus was taken prisoner.

№5 Закінчите пропозиції, утворивши необхідну частину мови (частина мови вказана в дужках). Перепишіть і перекладіть пропозиції на російську мову:

1 His (to perform) as Hamlet was a huge success. (Іменник)

2 Many (Europe) countries now use the Euro as their official currency . (Прикметник)

3 Being very (ambition), he graduated with top honours at a very young age . (Прикметник)

4 Despite his nervousness he won the 100 metre race (easy) (наріччя)

5 His (to choose) of music was not to my liking. (Іменник)

6 We saw the most (beauty) sunset in Florida last year. (Прикметник)

7 We have a lot of (free) in our choice of courses next year. (Іменник)

8 Everyone has a (responsible) to keep our city clean. (Іменник)

№6 а) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід часу. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 (On / At) 15 th of January I'm going to take an exam .

2 I was born (on / at) 26 th of July.

3 I have been doing this work (from / since) morning.

4 He usually goes to the gym (on / in) Friday evening.

5 He'll be waiting for me at hotel (at / on) 5 o'clock.

b) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід місця та напрямку. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 The train went (across / through) the tunnel.

2 He walked (up / above) the stairs.

3 We did not know what to do, so (in / at) the end we decided to go (at / to) the cinema.

4 He put the documents (on / at) the table.

5 They found the boy (among / between) the bushes in the garden.

№7 Виправте помилки у вживанні артиклів, вставте артиклі, де необхідно. Перепишіть виправлені пропозиції і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 I need an information.

2 The supper consisted of the fish and the chips.

3 The postmark first appeared in the England in the 1840.

4 His name is on the tip of my tongue, but I can not remember it.

5 Stronger the storm, sooner it'll pass.

6 She has the big family and that's why from morning till night she is as busy as the bee.

7 The next Monday I'll have to be in Moscow.

8 I'm looking for the new pair of gloves.

9 "Did you enjoy a performance?" - "It was great."

10 I can not go for the walk with you.

№8. Прочитайте текст і знайдіть в ньому такі слова і вирази:

ультраліві; ультраправі; викрадення людей; внутрішні конфлікти;

прихильники анархізму; дестабілізувати існуючі політичні інститути; люди, які стоять при владі; політичне вбивство; захоплення заручників;

психологічна війна; телерепортаж; залякувати когось

№9 Зіставте наступні слова з їх значеннями:

a) banishment

1) to murder a ruler, politician, or other important person

b) heresy

2) taking control of an aircraft using the threat of force in order to make political demands

c) victim

3) the act of causing someone severe physical pain as a punishment or to force someone to give information

d) hijacking

4) not guilty of a crime or sin; blameless

e) assassinate

5) a person, animal, or thing that suffers pain, death, harm, destruction, etc.

f) denomination

6) a complaint or cause for complaint, especially when one feels one has been unfairly treated

g) innocent

7) a belief that is against the official or accepted beliefs of a religion or other group

h) execution

8) sending away by official order from one's own country as a punishment

i) torture

9) a religious group that is part of a larger religious body

j) grievance

10) a case of lawful killing as a punishment

№10 Переведіть 1, 4, 5,6 абзаци тексту на російську мову.

Terrorism

1) Terrorism is the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective. Terrorism has been used by political organizations with both rightist and leftist objectives, by nationalistic and ethnic groups, by revolutionaries, and by the armies and secret police of the governments themselves.

2) Terrorism has been practiced throughout history and throughout the world. The ancient Greek historian Xenophon wrote of the effectiveness of psychological warfare against enemy populations. Roman emperors such as Tiberius and Caligula used banishment, expropriation of property, and execution as means to discourage opposition to their rule. The Spanish Inquisition used arbitrary arrest, torture, and execution to punish what is viewed as religious heresy. The use of terror was openly advocated by Robespierre as a means of encouraging revolutionary virtue during the French Revolution, leading to the period of his political dominance called the Reign of Terror (1793-94). After the American Civil War (1861-65) defiant Southerners formed a terrorist organization called the Ku Klux Klan to intimidate supporters of

Reconstruction. In the latter half of the 19th century, terrorism was adopted by adherents of anarchism in Western Europe, Russia, and the United States. They believed that the best way to effect revolutionary political and social change was to assassinate persons in positions of power. From 1865 to 1905 a number of kings, presidents, prime ministers, and other government officials were killed by anarchists 'guns or bombs.

3) The 20th century witnessed great changes in the use and practice of terrorism. Terrorism became the hallmark of a number of political movements stretching from the extreme right to the extreme left of the political spectrum. Technological advances such as automatic weapons and compact, electrically detonated explosives gave terrorists a new mobility and lethality.

4) Terrorism was adopted as virtually a state policy, though an unacknowledged one, by such totalitarian regimes as those of Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler and Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. In these states arrest, imprisonment, torture, and execution were applied without legal guidance or restraints to create a climate of fear and to encourage adherence to the national ideology and the declared economic, social, and political goals of the state.

5) Terrorism has most commonly become identified, however, with individuals or groups attempting to destabilize or overthrow existing political institutions.Terrorism has been used by one or both sides in anticolonial conflicts (Ireland and the United Kingdom, Algeria and France, Vietnam and France / United States), in disputes between different national groups over possession of a contested homeland (Palestinians and Israel), in conflicts between different religious denominations (Catholics and Protestants in the Northern Ireland), and in internal conflicts between revolutionary forces and established governments (Malaysia, Indonesia, etc.)

6) Terrorism's public impact has been greatly magnified by the use of modern communications media. Any act of violence is certain to attract television coverage, which brings the event directly into millions of homes and exposes viewers to the terrorists 'demands, grievances, or political goals. Modern terrorism differs from that of the past because its victims are frequently innocent civilians who are picked at random or who merely happen into terrorist situations. Many groups of terrorists in Europe hark back to the anarchists of the 19th century in their isolation from the political mainstream and the unrealistic nature of their goals. Lacking a base of popular support, extremists substitute violent acts for legitimate political activities. Such acts include kidnappings, assassinations, skyjackings, bombings, and hijackings.

№11 Прочитайте текст ще раз і письмово дайте відповідь на запитання до нього:

1) What objectives are usually pursued by terrorism?

2) What was the role and place of terrorism throughout centuries and throughout the world?

3) Can terrorism be used in the framework of a state policy? Do you think terrorism is the only means of settling various conflicts in societies?

4) What is the role of communications media in terrorism's public impact?

№12 Визначте, чи є такі твердження вірними (true) або невірними (false). Виправте невірні твердження і перепишіть їх.

1) The practice of using terrorism in its form of unpredictable violence throughout the contemporary world can not be denied.

2) But for terror during the French Revolution Robespierre would have never entered the period of his political dominance.

3) Technological advances of the 20th century brought no changes into the practice of terrorism.

4) In order to encourage adherence to the national ideology and the declared political goals of the state Nazi Germany put no obstacles to terrorism.

5) The anarchists of the 19th century were always close to the political mainstream and put forward quite realistic demands.

6) Due to modern communications media, millions of viewers are directly exposed to the terrorists 'political goals.

7) There are no differences between modern terrorism and terrorism of the past.

8) Terrorism first appeared in France during the Robespierre Reign of Terror.

варіант №4

№1 Розкрийте дужки і поставте дієслова в потрібний час (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 "Are you free on Tuesday?" - "I'm afraid not. I (to meet) Julia. "

2 They (to play) for half an hour when their father got home.

3 It was warm, so I (to take off) my coat.

4 "What you (to do) at this time yesterday?" - "I (to prepare) for my exam."

5 I (to meet) a lot of people in the last few days.

6 You (to know) each other for a long time?

7 I tried to phone her this morning, but there (to be) no answer. She (to go) out.

8 Next year they (to be married) for 25 years.

№2 вжив такі пропозиції як підрядні додаткові, в ролі головних використовуючи пропозиції, дані в дужках. Змінюйте часи відповідно до правила узгодження часів. Перепишіть перероблені пропозиції:

1 "I will come to the party". (Ann promised ...)

2 "Can I do the washing-up?" (I offered ...)

3 "Do not touch the wire". (He warned me ...)

4 She made no mistakes in her dictation. (She was glad ...)

5 "You'd better apologize for being late". (My mother advised ...)

№3 Розкрийте дужки і виберіть потрібну пасивну форму дієслова, вкажіть час. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 (Was anybody injured / Has anybody been injured) in the accident?

2 "Is this an old film?" - "Yes, it (was made / had been made) in 1949."

3 There are a lot of students in the hall. A new film (is being showed / is showed).

4 Maria is happy. She (was offered / has been offered) a new job.

5 Rice (is grown / has been grown) in many countries.

6 Dinner (is served / is being served) at six.

7 You (will be sent / will have been sent) to Paris at the end of the month.

8 Do not water the plants. They (have just been watered / were just watered).

№4 Переведіть діалог і передайте його в непрямій мові, переробляючи кожне речення:

Mother: Mark, we've run out of vegetables and we 've hardly any bread in the house . You know, now it's your turn to go to the greengrocer's and to the baker's.

Mark: Oh, bother! Why do we have to go shopping so often?

Mother: The day before yesterday it was Nelly who did all the shopping . She went to the grocer's and to the butcher's.

Mark: Did she? But, Mother, girls are so fond of shopping. Let Nelly to do it today as well.

Mother: Oh, you've been lazy-bones ever since you were born! It's so difficult to make you go anywhere.

Mark: Do you want me to be a model boy , Mum?

Mother: I'd like to. Take that bag and do not grumble. Buy a cabbage, a pound of onions, half a pound of carrots and a loaf of bread. Here is the money and do not forget the change.

№5 Закінчите пропозиції, утворивши необхідну частину мови (частина мови вказана в дужках). Перепишіть і перекладіть пропозиції на російську мову:

1 Prices have increased (sharp) in relation to rising production costs. (прислівник)

2 The (true) is sometimes difficult to find. (Іменник)

3 It is a (to relate) short trip from here to Mar's house. (прислівник)

4 There is a (possible) that she will be studying abroad next year. (Іменник)

5 Much (to prepare) is necessary before all diplomatic visits. (Іменник)

6 Many actors get (nerve) before performing on a stage. (Прикметник)

7 The two girls had a strong and lasting (friend) (іменник)

8 Jack was (enormous) disappointed when he failed his driving test. (прислівник)

№6 а) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід часу. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 I have not seen you (for / during) ages.

2 Our lessons start (at / on) 9 o'clock.

3 We have known each other (since / from) childhood.

4 He is on a business trip. He'll return (in / after) two weeks.

5 Are you free (on / in) Friday evening?

b) Розкрийте дужки і виберіть відповідний привід місця та напрямку. Перепишіть речення і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 The story is a dialogue (among / between) a husband and a wife.

2 (In / At) the end of the street you'll see a big beautiful building .

3 Something strange was lying (on / at) the table.

4 Look at the picture (on / at) the top of the page.

5 She saw him (through / across) the window.

№7 Виправте помилки у вживанні артиклів, вставте артиклі, де необхідно. Перепишіть виправлені пропозиції і переведіть їх на російську мову:

1 Day by day the weather is getting warmer and warmer.

2 Jeffrey Chaucer, a founder of English Literature, lived an interesting life.

3 The Japanese are more industrious than the French.

4 Eugene was dressed like the London dandy.

5 What do you like better: the summer or the winter?

6 Do you want an advice?

7 The China is an ancient country in Middle East.

8 I'm looking for the pair of trousers.

9 We must drink a mineral water to be healthy.

10 There was a little understanding between father and son.

№8 Прочитайте текст і знайдіть в ньому такі слова і вирази:

здійснення (застосування) політичної влади; волевиявлення держави;

участі мас в політиці; надання першорядного значення волі більшості;

інтеграція або злиття законодавчої і виконавчої влади;

згубний, фатальний; сполучна ланка між тими, хто править, і тими, ким управляють; набір встановлених норм, прийнятих за основний закон; об'єднання безлічі інтересів; служити прикладом; виборні посади в уряді

№9 Зіставте наступні слова з їх значеннями:

a) electorate

1) the struggle between several people or groups to win something or gain an advantage

b) suffrage

2) joining to something else so as to form a whole

c) office

3) a principle or set of principles (especially of a religious or political kind) that is taught

d) ratify

4) an act of making a choice or decision

e) legislature

5) a government department

f) vote

6) to add strength or support to; make stronger or firmer

g) integration

7) to approve a written agreement and make it official by signing it

h) competition

8) the right to vote in national elections

i) doctrine

9) a body of people who have the power to make and change laws

j) reinforce

10) all the people in a country or an area who have the right to vote

№10 Переведіть 2, 3, 4, 7 абзаци тексту на російську мову.

Constitutional Government

1) Constitutional government is defined by the existence of a constitution - which may be a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental law of the policy - that effectively controls the exercise of political power. The essence of constitutionalism is the control of power by its distribution among several state organs or offices in such a way that they are each subjected to reciprocal controls and forced to cooperate in formulating the will of the state.

2) Although constitutional government in this sense flourished in England and in some other historical systems for a considerable period, it is only recently that it has been associated with forms of mass participation in politics. In England, for example, constitutional government was not harnessed to political democracy until after the Reform Act of тисяча вісімсот тридцять дві and subsequent 19th-century extensions of the suffrage. In the contemporary world, however, constitutional governments are also generally democracies, and in most cases they are referred to as constitutional democracies or constitutional-democratic systems.

3) The contemporary political systems that combine constitutionalism and democracy share a common basis in the primacy they accord to the will of the majority of the people as expressed in free elections.In all such systems, political parties are key institutions, for they are the agencies by which majority opinion in a modern mass electorate is mobilized and expressed. Indeed, the history of the political party in its modern form is coincidental with the development of contemporary constitutional-democratic systems. In each case, the transition from the older forms of constitutionalism to modern constitutional democracy was accompanied by the institutionalization of parties and the development of techniques of party competition.

4) The essential functions of political parties in a constitutional democracy are the integration of a multitude of interests, beliefs, and values ​​into one or more programs or proposals for change and the nomination of party members for elective office in the government. In both functions, the party serves as a link between the rulers and the ruled: in the first case by allowing the electorate to register an opinion on policy and in the second by giving the people a chance to choose their rulers. Of course, the centralized, autocratically directed, and ideologically orthodox one-party systems of totalitarian regimes perform neither of these functions.

5) The two major types of constitutional democracy in the modern world are exemplified by the United States and Great Britain. The United States is the leading example of the presidential system of constitutional democracy; Britain, although its system is sometimes referred to as a cabinet system in recognition of the Cabinet in the government, is the classic example of the parliamentary system.

6) The US presidential system is based on the doctrine of separation of powers and distinguishes sharply between the personnel of the legislature and the executive; the British parliamentary system provides for the integration or fusion of legislature and executive. In the US system the separation of legislature and executive is reinforced by their separate election and by the doctrine of checks and balances that provides constitutional support for routine disagreement between the branches; in the British system the integration of legislature and executive is reinforced by the necessity for their constant agreement, or for a condition of "confidence" between the two, if the normal processes of government are to continue.

7) In the US system reciprocal controls are provided by such devices as the presidential veto of legislation the Senate's role in ratifying treaties and confirming executive nominations, congressional appropriation of funds and the executive ability to declare war, and judicial review of legislation; in the British system the major control device is the vote of "no confidence" or the rejection of legislation that is considered vital.

№11 Прочитайте текст ще раз і дайте відповідь на наступні питання:

1) What is the essence of constitutionalism?

2) Speak of the main functions of political parties in a constitutional democracy.

3) What are the two major types of constitutional democracy in the modern world?

4) What is the difference between the American and the British constitutional democracies?

№12 Визначте, чи є такі твердження вірними (true) або невірними (false). Виправте невірні твердження і перепишіть їх.

1) Constitutional government in England has always been associated with forms of mass participation in politics.

2) In the contemporary world constitutional governments are the same as they were in the past.

3) The key point of modern constitutional democracies is the will of the majority of the people expressed in free elections.

4) The United States and Great Britain are the leading examples of constitutional democracy in the modern world.

5) The British parliamentary system provides for the separation of legislature and executive.

6) Political parties in constitutional democracy have two functions in which the party links the rulers and the ruled.

7) Both the United States and British systems are based on the doctrine of checks and balances.

8) In the US system the major reciprocal controls belong only to the president.

Тексти для додаткового читання.

Suffragette

The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the women's suffrage movement , originally in the United Kingdom. The term comes from the word suffrage, which means the right to vote. The word was originally coined to describe a more radical faction of the suffrage movement in the UK, mainly members of the Women's Social and Political Union, headed by Emmeline Pankhurst. Suffragist is a more general term for members of the movement , whether radical or conservative, male or female. American women preferred this more inclusive title, but people in the United States who were hostile to suffrage for the American woman used the UK word as a pejorative, since the feminine-sounding version could be dismissed more easily. In the UK, the term "suffragist" is usually used solely to describe members of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS).

It is important to note that the woman's suffrage movement was one primarily run by middle class women, particularly the unmarried ones, who - frustrated by their social and economic situation - sought an outlet in which to start change. Their struggles for change within society, along with the work of such advocates for women's rights as John Stuart Mill, were enough to spearhead a movement that would encompass mass groups of women fighting for suffrage. Mill had first brought the idea of ​​women's suffrage up in the platform he presented to British electors in 1865. He would later be joined by numerous men and women fighting for the same cause.

In Canada, this same issue was brought up but was quickly revised into the Canadian legislation as women's rights were gained. This gave the women more motivation to work in factories and wartime production during World War I. Suffragettes carried out direct action such as chaining themselves to railings, setting fire to the contents of mailboxes, smashing windows and on occasions setting off bombs. One suffragette, Emily Davison, died after she stepped out in front of the King's horse at the Epsom Derby of 1913. Many of her fellow suffragettes were imprisoned and went on hunger strikes, during which they were restrained and forcibly fed (see Force-feeding ) and had reached the height of their campaign by 1912.

The so-called Cat and Mouse Act was passed by the British government in an attempt to prevent suffragettes from obtaining public sympathy; it provided the release of those whose hunger strikes had brought them sickness, as well as their re-imprisonment once they had recovered. Nevertheless, protests continued on both sides of the Atlantic. Alice Paul and Lucy Burns led a series of protests against the Wilson Administration in Washington that referred to "Kaiser Wilson" and compared the plight of the German people with that of American women (see picture).

During World War I, a serious shortage of able-bodied men ( "manpower") occurred, and women were required to take on many of the traditional male roles. This led to a new view of what a woman was capable of doing. The war also caused a split in the British suffragette movement, with the mainstream, represented by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst's Women's Social and Political Union, calling a 'ceasefire' in their campaign for the duration of the war, while more radical suffragettes, represented by Sylvia Pankhurst's Women's Suffrage Federation continued the struggle. Political movement towards women's suffrage began during the war and in 1918 року, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed an act (the Representation of the People Act 1918) granting the vote to: women over the age of 30 who were householders, the wives of householders , occupiers of property with an annual rent of £ 5, and graduates of British universities. The right to vote of American women was codified in the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920. Finally, women in the United Kingdom achieved suffrage on the same terms as men in +1928.

The perestroika program

During the initial period (1985-1987) of Mikhail Gorbachev's time in power, he talked about modifying central planning, but did not make any truly fundamental changes. Gorbachev and his team of economic advisers then introduced more fundamental reforms , which became known as perestroika (economic restructuring).

At the June 1987 plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), Gorbachev presented his "basic theses," which laid the political foundation of economic reform for the remainder of the existence of the Soviet Union.

In July 1987, the Supreme Soviet passed the Law on State Enterprise. The law stipulated that state enterprises were free to determine output levels based on demand from consumers and other enterprises. Enterprises had to fulfill state orders, but they could dispose of the remaining output as they saw fit. Enterprises bought inputs from suppliers at negotiated contract prices. Under the law, enterprises became self-financing; that is, they had to cover expenses (wages, taxes, supplies, and debt service) through revenues. No longer was the government to rescue unprofitable enterprises that could face bankruptcy. Finally, the law shifted control over the enterprise operations from ministries to elected workers 'collectives.

The Law on Cooperatives, enacted in May 1988, was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev regime. For the first time, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors. The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, but it later revised these to avoid discouraging private-sector activity. Under this provision, cooperative restaurants, shops, and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene.

Gorbachev brought perestroika to the Soviet Union's foreign economic sector with measures that Soviet economists considered bold at that time . His program virtually eliminated the monopoly that the Ministry of Foreign Trade had once held on most trade operations. It permitted the ministries of the various industrial and agricultural branches to conduct foreign trade in sectors under their responsibility rather than having to operate indirectly through the bureaucracy of trade ministry organizations. In addition, regional and local organizations and individual state enterprises were permitted to conduct foreign trade. This change was an attempt to redress a major imperfection in the Soviet foreign trade regime: the lack of contact between Soviet end users and suppliers and their foreign partners.

The most significant of Gorbachev's reforms in the foreign economic sector allowed foreigners to invest in the Soviet Union in the form of joint ventures with Soviet ministries, state enterprises, and cooperatives. The foreign partner supplied capital, technology, entrepreneurial expertise, and, in many cases, products and services of world competitive quality.

By 1990 the government had virtually lost control over economic conditions. Government spending increased sharply as an increasing number of unprofitable enterprises required state support and consumer price subsidies continued. Tax revenues declined because revenues from the sales of vodka plummeted during the anti-alcohol campaign and because republic and local governments withheld tax revenues from the central government under the growing spirit of regional autonomy.

Revolution

Revolution has been a very frequently used term since the 17th century at least.But what does it imply as a notion? The generalized definition as given in the Encyclopaedia Britannica carries that a revolution is "a major, sudden, and hence typically violent alteration in government and in related associations and structures ." As far as economic sphere is concerned the same term is used in expressions such as Industrial Revolution, Cultural Revolution, for these terms refer to a radical and profound change in economic and cultural relationships as well as advance in technology and science.

As is known the very word revolution comes from the Latin word revolutio and its original meaning implies the idea of changing or turning something . The idea of ​​revolution in modern understanding of the word has its roots in the Aristotelian notion of cyclical alterations in the forms of government but now it carries the idea of ​​radical departure from any previous historical pattern. Revolution is held to challenge not only the established political order but also the economic system, social structure and cultural values ​​of those societies as was proved by the greatest revolutions of European history which happened in England, France and Russia. From ancient Greece to the Middle Ages revolution was considered a very destructive force. The ancient Greeks found revolution possible only after the decay of the fundamental moral and religious tenets of society. Plato, for instance, believed that society where existed a firmly established code of beliefs could hinder the revolution. Another philosopher who influenced Western European philosophical thought more than anybody else, namely Aristotle, also favored the idea that a society is vulnerable to revolution if its basic value system is flimsy or tenuous.

Throughout many centuries the idea of ​​revolution was being developed and elaborated. Many philosophers and historians contributed to the analysis of processes which could provide the ground for a revolutionary upheaval and the aftermath society had to face afterwards. Attitude to the idea of ​​revolution changed in the course of time. During the Middle Ages the maintenance of the established beliefs and the existing order remained top priority. Great efforts were undertaken to find means of opposing revolution and stifling any changes in society. Religious authority was so strong and its belief in the maintenance of order so fundamental that the church required that people should accept the inequities of power, instead of upsetting the stability of society.

Only after the emergence of secular humanism during the Renaissance did this concept of revolution begin to acquire a more modern meaning. In the 16th century the Italian philosopher and writer Niccolo Machiavelli admitted the importance of creating a state that could endure the threat of revolution. But he stated that a necessary stipulation for it should be the introduction of certain necessary changes in the structure of government. The only thing Machiavelli was primarily concerned with was the creation of a truly stable state. It should be mentioned that he never used the term "revolution" itself but the very acceptance of the idea of ​​change placed him at the forefront of modern revolutionary thought.

The 17th century English poet Milton was the first to believe that revolutionary processes or upheavals were just society's inherent ability to realize its potential. He believed in revolution as the right of society to protect itself from abusive tyrants, thus securing freedom from oppressive leadership and creating a new order that reflected the needs of the people.

Immanuel Kant added another facet to the understanding of the idea of ​​revolution. He called it a force for the advancement of mankind. Kant believed that revolution was a natural step for a higher ethical foundation for society. This particular idea served as a basis for the American and French revolutions.

It was Hegel who served a crucial catalyst in the formation of 20th century revolutionary thought. For him revolution was the accomplishment of human destiny. As for revolutionary leaders Hegel believed them capable not only of instigating society but also of implementing reforms. Karl Marx took Hegel's ideas as a basis for his doctrine of class struggle focused on subsequent control over the economic processes in society. His ideals of freedom and a classless society (that acme of revolutionary endeavor) could be achieved if the working class or the proletariat managed to take over the means of production. He considered it the culmination of the endeavor of proletariat after which there would be no need for further political changes.


  • Suffragette
  • The perestroika program